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    بحث عن مادة الانجليزي

    شاطر

    Mr.AboZaid
    مدير المنتدي
    مدير المنتدي

    الانتماء:
    • ينتمي لمدرسة الحسينية

    عدد الرسائل: 1950
    العمر: 18
    الصف الدراسي : الثالث الإعدادي
    السمعة: 10
    نقاط التميز: 1000003137
    تاريخ التسجيل: 27/02/2009

    عادي بحث عن مادة الانجليزي

    مُساهمة من طرف Mr.AboZaid في الثلاثاء أبريل 28, 2009 4:51 pm

    Significance


    Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,[8][9] is the dominant international language in communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy.[10] Its spread beyond the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire, and by the late nineteenth century its reach was truly global.[11] It is the dominant language in the United States, whose growing economic and cultural influence and status as a global superpower since World War II have significantly accelerated the language's adoption across the planet.[9]
    A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number
    of fields, occupations and professions such as medicine and computing;
    as a consequence over a billion people speak English to at least a
    basic level (see English language learning and teaching). It is also one of six official languages of the United Nations.
    Linguists such as David Crystal recognize that one impact of this massive growth of English, in common with other global languages, has been to reduce native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world, most particularly in Australasia and North America, and its huge influence continues to play an important role in language attrition.[12] Similarly, historical linguists, aware of the complex and fluid dynamics of language change,
    are always aware of the potential English contains through the vast
    size and spread of the communities that use it and its natural internal
    variety, such as in its creoles and pidgins, to produce a new family of distinct languages over time.[13]

    [edit] History

    Main article: History of the English language

    English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian and Lower Saxon dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands[citation needed] in the 5th century. One of these Germanic tribes were the Angles,[14] who may have come from Angeln, and Bede wrote that their whole nation came to Britain,[15] leaving their former land empty. The names 'England' (or 'Aenglaland') and English are derived from the name of this tribe.
    The Anglo Saxons began invading around 449 AD from the regions of Denmark and Jutland,[16][17] Before the Anglo-Saxons arrived in England the native population spoke Brythonic, a Celtic language.[18] Although the most significant changes in dialect occurred after the Norman invasion of 1066, the language retained its name and the pre-Norman invasion dialect is now known as Old English.[19]
    Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Great Britain.[20]
    One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate.
    The original Old English language was then influenced by two waves of
    invasion. The first was by language speakers of the Scandinavian
    branch of the Germanic family; they conquered and colonized parts of
    the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second was the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Old Norman and developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman.
    (Over the centuries, this lost the specifically Norman element under
    the influence of Parisian French and, later, of English, eventually
    turning into a distinctive dialect of Anglo-French.)
    These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree
    (though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic
    sense of the word; mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of
    speakers of different languages, who develop a hybrid tongue for basic
    communication).
    Cohabitation with the Scandinavians
    resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical
    supplementation of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Italic
    branch of the European languages. This Norman influence entered English
    largely through the courts and government. Thus, English developed into
    a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary.
    The emergence and spread of the British Empire as well as the emergence of the United States as a superpower helped to spread the English language around the world.

    [edit] Classification and related languages


    The English language belongs to the western sub-branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The closest living relative of English is either Scots, spoken primarily in Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland, or Frisian.
    As Scots is viewed by linguists as either a separate language or else
    as a group of dialects of English, Frisian rather than Scots is often
    said to be the next closest. After those are other Germanic languages
    which are more distantly related, namely the West Germanic languages (Dutch, Afrikaans, Low German, High German), and the North Germanic languages Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese.
    With the exception of Scots and possibly Frisian, none of these
    languages is mutually intelligible with English, because of divergences
    in lexis, syntax, semantics, and phonology.[citation needed]
    Lexical differences with the other Germanic languages arise
    predominantly because of the heavy usage in English of words taken from
    Latin (for example, "exit", vs. Dutch uitgang) (literally "out-gang" with "gang" as in "gangway") and French ("change" vs. German Änderung, "movement" vs. German Bewegung)
    (literally "othering" and "be-way-ing" ("proceeding along the way")).
    The syntax of German and Dutch is also significantly different from
    English, with different rules for setting up sentences (for example,
    German Ich habe noch nie etwas auf dem Platz gesehen, vs. English "I have still never seen anything in the square"). Semantics causes a number of false friends
    between English and its relatives. Phonology differences obscure words
    which actually are genetically related ("enough" vs. German genug), and sometimes both semantics and phonology are different (German Zeit, "time", is related to English "tide", but the English word has come to mean gravitational effects on the ocean by the moon).[citation needed]
    Finally, English has been forming compound words and affixing
    existing words separately from the other Germanic languages for over
    1500 years and has different habits in that regard. For instance,
    abstract nouns in English may be formed from native words by the
    suffixes -hood, -ship, -dom and -ness. All of these have cognate
    suffixes in most or all other Germanic languages, but their usage
    patterns have diverged, as German "Freiheit" vs. English "freedom" (the
    suffix -heit being cognate of English -hood, while English -dom is
    cognate with German -tum).
    Many written French
    words are also intelligible to an English speaker (though
    pronunciations are often quite different) because English absorbed a
    large vocabulary from Norman and French, via Anglo-Norman
    after the Norman Conquest and directly from French in subsequent
    centuries. As a result, a large portion of English vocabulary is
    derived from French, with some minor spelling differences (word
    endings, use of old French spellings, etc.), as well as occasional
    divergences in meaning of so-called false friends. The pronunciation of
    most French loanwords in English (with exceptions such as mirage or phrases like coup d’état) has become completely anglicized and follows a typically English pattern of stress.[citation needed] Some North Germanic words also entered English due to the Danish invasion shortly before then (see Danelaw); these include words such as "sky", "window", "egg", and even "they" (and its forms) and "are" (the present plural form of "to be").[citation needed]

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الخميس أكتوبر 23, 2014 3:02 pm