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بحث عن مادة الانجليزي


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عدد الرسائل: 1950
العمر: 18
الصف الدراسي : الثالث الإعدادي
السمعة: 10
نقاط التميز: 1000003137
تاريخ التسجيل: 27/02/2009

عادي بحث عن مادة الانجليزي

مُساهمة من طرف Mr.AboZaid في الثلاثاء أبريل 28, 2009 4:51 pm


Modern English, sometimes described as the first global lingua franca,[8][9] is the dominant international language in communications, science, business, aviation, entertainment, radio and diplomacy.[10] Its spread beyond the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire, and by the late nineteenth century its reach was truly global.[11] It is the dominant language in the United States, whose growing economic and cultural influence and status as a global superpower since World War II have significantly accelerated the language's adoption across the planet.[9]
A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number
of fields, occupations and professions such as medicine and computing;
as a consequence over a billion people speak English to at least a
basic level (see English language learning and teaching). It is also one of six official languages of the United Nations.
Linguists such as David Crystal recognize that one impact of this massive growth of English, in common with other global languages, has been to reduce native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world, most particularly in Australasia and North America, and its huge influence continues to play an important role in language attrition.[12] Similarly, historical linguists, aware of the complex and fluid dynamics of language change,
are always aware of the potential English contains through the vast
size and spread of the communities that use it and its natural internal
variety, such as in its creoles and pidgins, to produce a new family of distinct languages over time.[13]

[edit] History

Main article: History of the English language

English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian and Lower Saxon dialects brought to Britain by Germanic settlers and Roman auxiliary troops from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the northern Netherlands[citation needed] in the 5th century. One of these Germanic tribes were the Angles,[14] who may have come from Angeln, and Bede wrote that their whole nation came to Britain,[15] leaving their former land empty. The names 'England' (or 'Aenglaland') and English are derived from the name of this tribe.
The Anglo Saxons began invading around 449 AD from the regions of Denmark and Jutland,[16][17] Before the Anglo-Saxons arrived in England the native population spoke Brythonic, a Celtic language.[18] Although the most significant changes in dialect occurred after the Norman invasion of 1066, the language retained its name and the pre-Norman invasion dialect is now known as Old English.[19]
Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of Great Britain.[20]
One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate.
The original Old English language was then influenced by two waves of
invasion. The first was by language speakers of the Scandinavian
branch of the Germanic family; they conquered and colonized parts of
the British Isles in the 8th and 9th centuries. The second was the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Old Norman and developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman.
(Over the centuries, this lost the specifically Norman element under
the influence of Parisian French and, later, of English, eventually
turning into a distinctive dialect of Anglo-French.)
These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree
(though it was never a truly mixed language in the strict linguistic
sense of the word; mixed languages arise from the cohabitation of
speakers of different languages, who develop a hybrid tongue for basic
Cohabitation with the Scandinavians
resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical
supplementation of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Italic
branch of the European languages. This Norman influence entered English
largely through the courts and government. Thus, English developed into
a "borrowing" language of great flexibility and with a huge vocabulary.
The emergence and spread of the British Empire as well as the emergence of the United States as a superpower helped to spread the English language around the world.

[edit] Classification and related languages

The English language belongs to the western sub-branch of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. The closest living relative of English is either Scots, spoken primarily in Scotland and parts of Northern Ireland, or Frisian.
As Scots is viewed by linguists as either a separate language or else
as a group of dialects of English, Frisian rather than Scots is often
said to be the next closest. After those are other Germanic languages
which are more distantly related, namely the West Germanic languages (Dutch, Afrikaans, Low German, High German), and the North Germanic languages Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese.
With the exception of Scots and possibly Frisian, none of these
languages is mutually intelligible with English, because of divergences
in lexis, syntax, semantics, and phonology.[citation needed]
Lexical differences with the other Germanic languages arise
predominantly because of the heavy usage in English of words taken from
Latin (for example, "exit", vs. Dutch uitgang) (literally "out-gang" with "gang" as in "gangway") and French ("change" vs. German Änderung, "movement" vs. German Bewegung)
(literally "othering" and "be-way-ing" ("proceeding along the way")).
The syntax of German and Dutch is also significantly different from
English, with different rules for setting up sentences (for example,
German Ich habe noch nie etwas auf dem Platz gesehen, vs. English "I have still never seen anything in the square"). Semantics causes a number of false friends
between English and its relatives. Phonology differences obscure words
which actually are genetically related ("enough" vs. German genug), and sometimes both semantics and phonology are different (German Zeit, "time", is related to English "tide", but the English word has come to mean gravitational effects on the ocean by the moon).[citation needed]
Finally, English has been forming compound words and affixing
existing words separately from the other Germanic languages for over
1500 years and has different habits in that regard. For instance,
abstract nouns in English may be formed from native words by the
suffixes -hood, -ship, -dom and -ness. All of these have cognate
suffixes in most or all other Germanic languages, but their usage
patterns have diverged, as German "Freiheit" vs. English "freedom" (the
suffix -heit being cognate of English -hood, while English -dom is
cognate with German -tum).
Many written French
words are also intelligible to an English speaker (though
pronunciations are often quite different) because English absorbed a
large vocabulary from Norman and French, via Anglo-Norman
after the Norman Conquest and directly from French in subsequent
centuries. As a result, a large portion of English vocabulary is
derived from French, with some minor spelling differences (word
endings, use of old French spellings, etc.), as well as occasional
divergences in meaning of so-called false friends. The pronunciation of
most French loanwords in English (with exceptions such as mirage or phrases like coup d’état) has become completely anglicized and follows a typically English pattern of stress.[citation needed] Some North Germanic words also entered English due to the Danish invasion shortly before then (see Danelaw); these include words such as "sky", "window", "egg", and even "they" (and its forms) and "are" (the present plural form of "to be").[citation needed]
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الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الإثنين أكتوبر 20, 2014 3:01 pm