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    بحث عن محمد علي

    شاطر

    Mr.AboZaid
    مدير المنتدي
    مدير المنتدي

    الانتماء:
    • ينتمي لمدرسة الحسينية

    عدد الرسائل: 1950
    العمر: 18
    الصف الدراسي : الثالث الإعدادي
    السمعة: 10
    نقاط التميز: 1000003137
    تاريخ التسجيل: 27/02/2009

    عادي بحث عن محمد علي

    مُساهمة من طرف Mr.AboZaid في الثلاثاء أبريل 28, 2009 4:47 pm

    Muhammad or Mehmed


    Current scholarship is divided on the proper spelling of his name.
    Its spelling in Arabic and Ottoman Turkish was consistent: محمد. To
    those who consider him to be the father of a modern Egyptian nation,
    having modernized the military and infrastructure, he was Muhammad
    (Mohammed, etc), the way his name would have been pronounced in Arabic,
    the primary language of Egypt. To those who consider him to be an
    Ottoman Albanian military leader who used Egypt as his base, creating a
    dynasty that spanned far beyond Egypt, he was Mehmed (Mehmet, etc), the
    way his name would have been pronounced by him and the other
    Turkish-speaking leadership. Again, as his name is written only one way
    in Arabic, this distinction is not an issue for writings in Arabic, but
    only for those writing in a Roman alphabet.[2]

    [edit] Early life


    Muhammad Ali was born in Kavala, in today's Greece (then apart of the Ottoman Empire) to Albanian parents.[3][4][5][6][7]
    According to the many French, English and other western journalists who
    interviewed him, and according to people who knew him, the only
    language he knew fluently was Albanian.[8] He was also competent in Turkish.[9] The son of a tobacco and shipping merchant named Ibrahim Agha, his mother Zainab Agha was his uncle Husain Agha's daughter. Muhammad Ali was the nephew of the "Ayan of Kavalla"
    (Çorbaci) Husain Agha. When his father died at a young age, Muhammad
    was taken and raised by his uncle with his cousins. As a reward for
    Muhammad Ali's hard working skills, his uncle Çorbaci gave him the rank
    of "Bolukbashi"
    for the collection of taxes in the town of Kavala. After his promising
    success in collecting taxes, he gained 2nd Commander rank under his
    cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the Kavala Volunteer Contingent that
    was sent to reoccupy Egypt following Napoleon's withdrawal. He married Ali Agha's daughter, Emine Nosratli, a wealthy widow of Ali Bey.
    In 1801, the Albanian commander of the Ottoman army was sent to reoccupy Egypt following a brief French occupation.
    He was second in command under his cousin Sarechesme Halil Agha in the
    Kavala Volunteer Contingent, which was itself part of a larger Ottoman
    force. The expedition landed at Aboukir in the spring of 1801.[10]
    The French withdrawal left a power vacuum in the Ottoman province. Mamluk power had been weakened, but not destroyed, and Ottoman forces clashed with the Mamluks for power.[11] During this period of anarchy Muhammad Ali used his Albanian troops to play both sides, gaining power and prestige for himself.[12] As the conflict drew on, the local populace grew weary of the power struggle. Led by the ulema,
    a group of prominent Egyptians demanded that the Wāli (governor)
    (Arabic: والي), Ahmad Kurshid Pasha, step down and Muhammad Ali be
    installed as the new Wāli in 1805.[13]
    The Ottoman sultan, Selim III,
    was not in a position to oppose Muhammad Ali’s ascension thereby
    allowing Muhammad Ali to set about consolidating his position. During
    the infighting between the Ottomans and Mamluks between 1801 and 1805,
    Muhammad Ali had carefully acted to gain the support of the general
    public.[14]
    By appearing as the champion of the people Muhammad Ali was able to
    forestall popular opposition until he had consolidated power.

    Mamluk Cavalryman





    The Mamluks still posed the greatest threat to Muhammad Ali. They
    had controlled Egypt for more than 600 years, and over that time they
    had extended their rule extensively throughout Egypt. Muhammad Ali’s
    approach was to eliminate the Mamluk leadership then move against the
    rank-in-file. In 1811, Muhammad Ali invited the Mamluk leaders to a
    celebration in honor of his son, Isma'il, being appointed to lead a
    military expedition into Arabia held at the Cairo Citadel. When the Mamluks arrived, they were trapped and killed.[15] After the leaders were killed, Muhammad Ali dispatched his army throughout Egypt to rout the remainder of the Mamluk forces.
    Muhammad Ali transformed Egypt into a regional power which he saw as
    the natural successor to the decaying Ottoman Empire. He summed up his
    vision for Egypt as follows:
    "I am well aware that the (Ottoman) Empire is heading by the day
    toward destruction...On her ruins I will build a vast kingdom... up to
    the Euphrates and the Tigris."[citation needed]

    [edit] Reforming Egypt


    Sultan Selim III had recognized the need to reform and modernize the
    Ottoman Empire along European lines to ensure that his state could
    compete. Selim III, however, faced stiff local opposition from an
    entrenched clergy and military apparatus. Consequently, Selim III was
    deposed and ultimately killed for his efforts. Muhammad Ali, too,
    recognized the need to modernize, and unlike Selim, he had dispatched
    his chief rival, giving him a free hand to mimic Selim’s attempted
    reforms.
    Muhammad Ali’s goal was to establish a powerful, European-style state.[16]
    In order to do that, he had to reorganize Egyptian society, streamline
    the economy, train a professional bureaucracy, and build a modern
    military.
    His first task was to secure a revenue stream for Egypt. To
    accomplish this, Muhammad Ali ‘nationalized’ all the land of Egypt,
    thereby officially owning all the production of the land. He
    accomplished the state annexation of property by raising taxes on the ‘tax-farmers’
    throughout Egypt. The new taxes were intentionally high and when the
    tax-farmers could not meet the demanded payments, Muhammad Ali
    confiscated the lands.[17]
    In practice, Muhammad Ali’s land reform amounted to a monopoly
    on trade in Egypt. He required all producers to sell their goods to the
    state. The state in turn resold Egyptian goods, within Egypt and to
    foreign markets, and retained the surplus. The practice proved very
    profitable for Egypt with the cultivation of long staple cotton. The new-found profits also extend down to the individual farmers, as the average wage increased fourfold.[18]
    In addition to bolstering the agricultural sector, Muhammad Ali
    built an industrial base for Egypt. His motivation for doing so was
    primarily an effort to build a modern military. Consequently, he
    focused on weapons production. Factories based in Cairo produced muskets and cannons. While a shipyard he built in Alexandria
    and began construction of a navy. By the end of the 1830s, Egypt’s war
    industries had constructed nine 100-gun warships and were turning out
    1,600 muskets a month.[19]
    The industrial innovations were not limited weapons production,
    however. Muhammad Ali established a textile industry in an effort to
    compete with European industries and produce greater revenues for
    Egypt. While the textile industry was not successful, the entire
    endeavor employed tens of thousands of Egyptians.[20]
    Additionally, by hiring European managers, he was able to introduce
    industrial training to the Egyptian population. To staff his new
    industries Muhammad Ali employed a corvée
    labor system. The peasantry objected to these conscriptions and many
    ran away from their villages to avoid being taken, sometimes fleeing as
    far away as Syria.
    A number of them maimed themselves so as to be unsuitable for combat:
    common ways of self-maiming were blinding an eye with rat poison and
    cutting off a finger of the right hand, which usually worked the firing
    mechanism of a rifle.
    Beyond building a functioning, industrial economy, Muhammad Ali also
    made an effort to train a professional military and bureaucracy. He
    sent promising citizens to Europe
    to study. Again the driving force behind the effort was to build a
    European-style army. Students were sent to study European languages,
    primarily French, so they could in turn translate military manuals into
    Arabic. He then used both educated Egyptians along with imported
    European experts to establish schools and hospitals in Egypt. The
    European education also provided talented Egyptians with a means of
    social mobility.
    A byproduct of Muhammad Ali’s training program was the establishment of a professional bureaucracy.
    Establishing an efficient central bureaucracy was an essential
    prerequisite for the success of Muhammad Ali’s other reforms. In the
    process of destroying the Mamluks, the Wāli had to fill the
    governmental roles that the Mamluks had previously filled. In doing so,
    Muhammad Ali kept all central authority for himself. He then
    partitioned Egypt into ten provenances responsible for collecting taxes
    and maintaining order.[21]
    Muhammad Ali installed his sons into most key positions; however, his
    reforms did offer Egyptians opportunities beyond agriculture and
    industry.

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الإثنين يوليو 28, 2014 12:18 pm